Carpet

Tools: Loom

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Weaving
 
 

Loom is a stand, on which carpet is woven; this is the most important tool in carpet weaving. Loom is a wooden or metallic frame in the shape of square or rectangular and as a pillar in weaving carpet. Traditional loom is made usually of wood, but recently metallic looms are also utilized and is in prevalent, due to its advantages.

Normal loom consists of two horizontal beam, the upper called "Sardar" (upper beam) and the other in lower part called "Zirdar" (lower beam). Those beams lean to two vertical beams on the sides called "Rastro" (right pillar) on the right hand and "Chapro" (left pillar) on the left; sometimes in some regions, both are called "Rastro" (right pillars). Legs of right and left pillars are dipped in the earth or stood on firm place.

After placing the loom, warp winding is done. Yarn and warp are wound from above on upper beam and from below at lower beam in various forms; winding warps around the lower beam is called "Zirtab".

"Kaju" or "Koji" is a cylinder shaped shaft, with 4 to 6 cm. diameter, that regulates and separates warps and prevents wryness of the carpet runners.

Shed rod (Haf) is a cylinder shaped shaft, thinner than Kaju, which stays between Kaju and upper beam. In Kaju having looms, this shaft is turning freely and separates the lower and upper warps.

Weaver sits on a bench or a lumber, already placed on a ladder, to be dominant on weaving. Lumber is called mostly "Takhteh Alvar" and in Azerbaijan "Takhtah Band". If loom was a "turning loom", as the woven part of carpet winds around lower beam, sitting place of weaver is fixed, but in loom of stable type, at elevation of weaving part, "Takhteh Alvar" gradually comes up to higher steps.

Wedge (Goveh) is a goniometric shaped clapper entering into the rectangular split of right pillars and is used to tightening warps in wooden looms, by hammering it inside, distance between upper beam and lower beam expands and warps become harder and tighter. If a wedge becomes looser or tighter than other wedges, loom become deformed and carpet become wry.

Weaving loom has following species:

A) considering way of placing:
1- horizontal loom spread on the ground
2- Vertical loom or standing

B) Considering applications:
1- Fixed loom in which upper and lower beams are steady and fixed.
2- Turkish loom (Tabriz Loom): Woven carpet is leading toward backside of apparatus by turning around lower beam, so one may weave carpet as long as about twice of length of the loom.
3- Rotating loom: In this type, one page warp is pulled and woven carpet is wound around it, by loosening lower beam.
4- Loom of kilim weaving, which is simpler than carpet weaving loom, on which pile less carpets and other hand made warps and wefts are woven.

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