Loom is a stand, on which carpet is woven; this is the most important
tool in carpet weaving. Loom is a wooden or metallic frame in the
shape of square or rectangular and as a pillar in weaving carpet.
Traditional loom is made usually of wood, but recently metallic looms
are also utilized and is in prevalent, due to its advantages.
loom consists of two horizontal beam, the upper called "Sardar"
(upper beam) and the other in lower part called "Zirdar"
(lower beam). Those beams lean to two vertical beams on the sides
called "Rastro" (right pillar) on the right hand and "Chapro"
(left pillar) on the left; sometimes in some regions, both are called
"Rastro" (right pillars). Legs of right and left pillars are
dipped in the earth or stood on firm place.
placing the loom, warp winding is done. Yarn and warp are wound from
above on upper beam and from below at lower beam in various forms;
winding warps around the lower beam is called "Zirtab".
or "Koji" is a cylinder shaped shaft, with 4 to 6 cm.
diameter, that regulates and separates warps and prevents wryness of
the carpet runners.
(Haf) is a cylinder shaped shaft, thinner than Kaju, which stays between
Kaju and upper beam. In Kaju having looms, this shaft is turning
freely and separates the lower and upper warps.
sits on a bench or a lumber, already placed on a ladder, to be
dominant on weaving. Lumber is called mostly "Takhteh Alvar"
and in Azerbaijan "Takhtah Band". If loom was a
"turning loom", as the woven part of carpet winds around
lower beam, sitting place of weaver is fixed, but in loom of stable
type, at elevation of weaving part, "Takhteh Alvar"
gradually comes up to higher steps.
(Goveh) is a goniometric shaped clapper entering into the rectangular
split of right pillars and is used to tightening warps in wooden
looms, by hammering it inside, distance between upper beam and lower
beam expands and warps become harder and tighter. If a wedge becomes
looser or tighter than other wedges, loom become deformed and carpet
loom has following species:
considering way of placing:
1- horizontal loom spread on the
2- Vertical loom or standing
1- Fixed loom in which upper and
lower beams are steady and fixed.
2- Turkish loom (Tabriz Loom):
Woven carpet is leading toward backside of apparatus by turning around
lower beam, so one may weave carpet as long as about twice of length
of the loom.
3- Rotating loom: In this type,
one page warp is pulled and woven carpet is wound around it, by
loosening lower beam.
4- Loom of kilim weaving, which is
simpler than carpet weaving loom, on which pile less carpets and other
hand made warps and wefts are woven.