Yazd is an ancient city of Iran,
which is bordered on desert (Kavir). Yazd is placed between Isfahan
and Kerman. It reaches from the North to “Dashte Kavir” , from the
East to “Kavir lut” Desert and Tabas, from the South to Kerman and
Rafsanjan and from the West to Abadeh and Qomsheh. Yazd is within 689
km in South of Tehran. It is in 54, 25’ of east longitude and 31,53’
of North latitude. It is 1222 m about the sea level. Yazd is situated
among mountains with 3600 meter height.
Considerable numbers of
Zoroastrian (Iranian) are living in this city. Its architecture
is very rich. Many high wind-towers are in this city, that Yazd is
known as wind tower city.
Yazd is one of the rug weaving
centers of Iran. Active people of this city, who have Persevered in
weaving industry, proceeded rug weaving as well.
“Joe Zafu Barbaro”, who traveled
to Iran in “Ozun Hassan” era, wrote about Yazd “… all of the
people are busy with spinning and weaving various silk textiles… .
They export most of these texture to India, Iran, Central Asia, some
parts of China, Russia, Turkistan,… .”
In Yazd carpet weaving started in
19th century, but it was during world war 2, which Yazd rug has been
known in Western countries.
Ancient Yazd rug images were Herat,
with ground in blue and chequer design, but new rugs have Kerman rug
designs, as well as corner-medallion and over all flower designs of
Isfahan and Kashan styles.
Its loom is vertical and knots are
usually asymmetric, with double wefts. Yazd rugs are mostly large with
long fluffs. Generally Yazd rugs are not delicate and fine and number
of its knots reaches to 100 to 200 per square inch. Yazd rugs, in
compare with Nain and Isfahan rugs, is not fine, but methodical weave
and use of fine wool, as well as natural shining dyes, made Yazd rugs
well-known. So according to the mentioned characteristics, its cost is
reasonable. That makes Yazd rugs popular.
Ghabeh Quran, Corner-Medallion, Tree
and Herat are the most common images among Yazd weavers. Wool is the
basic material of rug weaving. Yazd weavers supply wool from other
cities, like Tehran and Isfahan. As Yazd is in desert region,
husbandry is not brisk, so little wool is produced.
Particular characteristics of Yazd
rug weaving is more usage of natural dyes, than other parts of Iran,
which have more Quality and brightness. Of course it must be
considered, That chemical dyes are used in Yazd rug, as well.
Well-Known senior rug weavers of Yazd
are: Mohammad Arjomand Kermani, Nasimzadeh, Nasiriani, Farrokhi, Agah,
Houshmand, Harandi, Molaesmaili, Ali Sefid.