specially after October Revolution, attained a new way of life; before
that, although they mostly used to be suppressed at North by Russian
and at South by Iranian, had freedom in choosing their environment,
using their power and migration; but since independence, they had more
and more tendency to an urban life. This tendency took place specially
in Turkmenistan and other new independent Turkish residents. In Iran,
This press took place very slowly.
now are living mainly in Turkmenistan, North of Iran, North-west of
Afghanistan and some republics of Central Asia, like Uzbekistan.
this decamping and evolution made change in their woven. Natural dyes
are almost vanished and looms became vertical. Carpet weaving is
limited, new designs with new subjects, like images of historical,
national and political characters, images of people, subjects showing
national events, feasts and commemorations have replaced repetitive
and monotonous designs of old time.
Iran and Afghanistan, keeping on old patterns continues. In
Afghanistan, situation is a little better than Iran, because, some
specifications in accordance with tribal work still are in use with
Turkmen carpets. In Europe, this specialty is known as
"Exotic": variety, purity, sense of aptitude plus fine and
of Iranian with Turkmen carpet, is a factor of prosperity of this
carpet, otherwise, it is not utterly known in world market; also
features of this carpet became limited and no more trump prayer-niche
or garden design is woven at present; only "Kharchin Gul"
and "Gazelle" in limited size are woven.
weaving, due to some attractiveness's, such as pictured carpets or benefiting
modern subjects )subjects chosen from normal life, face of men ad
women at work, life, dance and feast) are not unwanted out of
production limits, though it is slightly wove and could not satisfy
carpet, until 20th century has followed old patterns, but during last
fifty years, everything changed in Iran. In fact, Iranian Turkmen did
not care much on carpet weaving and this business was declined un that
20th century, a principal part of Turkmen carpets were woven in
Turkmen residing regions of North frontier of Iran. Carpets were sold
mainly in Meshed and then transported to Tehran; in Pahlavi era,
government confiscated their lands, following the act of Land Reforms;
so Turkmen's living changed compulsorily, and they directed to carpet
three tribes of Turkmen have the business of carpet weaving: Two of
"Yamut" and a part of "Tekkeh" clans. They have
migrated to Iran at about beginning of 20th century.
have two sects of "Atabay" and "Jafarbay".
"Tekkeh" are residing in "Jargalan" and have
created the best weavings of Iranian Turkmen. Their main residence is
at "Maraveh-Tappeh", but their weaving is not as much as two
clans of Yamut.
in weaving art, stands after "Tekkeh", but weaves the
highest quantity of carpet. Around 1952, Atabay wove half product of
Iranian Turkmen carpets and mostly sold in "Gonbad Qabous".
stands after "Atabay", while its production is less than the
former and sold in "Aq-qaleh" and "Gorgan Thursday
were woven by women on horizontal loom, inside their tents (and now on
vertical loom in their houses), where weaving smaller pieces is
easier. They use wool for warp and weft, benefiting their own sheep
for wool. Between two World Wars, natural dyes, such as madder and
cochineal were vanished and replaced by synthetic dyes.
Second World War, Turkmen carpets of Iran basically changed; old
patterns were forgotten and only designs of "Bukhara", being
unobtainable and expensive, was in demand. Merchants and Turkmen found
a good income source due to familiarity with Bukhara designs. Old dark
red color vanished and replaced by Aniline (madder red) color.
woven of desert weave their carpets and rugs single-wefted. In Turkmen
carpets, we encounter with a source of esthetic of labor and quest of
crowd, collected by consecutive generations. Carpet, for tent-dwellers
is not an ornamental or diversion mean, but a necessity of rich and
poor. Carpet, first of all, is used to cover up mobile houses of felt,
as a furniture. Their tent consists of a dismountable scaffold covered
by mat and felt.
of the tent is closed by a special rug, called “Ensi”. Turkmen sit
and sleep on the felt or rugs spread on the floor. When Turkmen leaves
his place for a trip, takes along his felt saddle (Namazlik), prayer
rug and a pair of woven siliques. In fact, rug is always a companion
of Turkmen, all long his life and his decamping object. At present,
this tribal art is missing their special quality and character, also
in connection with carpet. Not only finesse of design, but also beauty
of colors, sustain a loss.