attracted regard of researchers at least since the last decades of
19th century. As long as the first collection of Turkmen carpets
opened its way through western museums and private collections, merit
of this carpet with its images, its basic images, its colors and
special weaving of Turkmen was recognized. In Russia and later in
USSR, in Europe and USA, writing about this carpet was started and
still in prevalence.
though following Iranian images, but have Turkmen specialty and
specification. Turkmen are remained in a special place of the history
of Iranian carpet weaving; only in the field of "color",
they still work according to daily possibilities. In course of time
alterations become increased, but whatever remains stable are basic
image and Turkmen images, which have stayed on the level of pre-Safavid
The other point,
probably effective in formation and mostly in historical trend and achieving
the final feature of Turkmen images, was prevalence of geometric
images in informal art of decoration of central Asia. These factors
could not be effect less in formation of images belonging to Turkmen,
Uzbeks and other nations of Central Asia.
Native art of
Central Asia, civilization which had at least record of 6000 years
precedence, is extremely rich in geometric image-leavens.
There is very fine
consideration in this respect: These tribal people, owing to their
culture and their way of life, may not have complicated and controlled
basic images. In exceptional instances, this phenomena is a sign of
taste and enthusiasm, rather than a controlled cultural result.
We could find the
best examples amongst Qashqais, having hundreds of basic images And
various designs which presents the richest form of tribal aptitude.
Their images mainly
consists of flowers, plants, animals and other images seen around
their own tribal living and their talent and taste turn around the
same subjects, drawing three-four legged bird, goat or deer with three
or five legs, combination of flower and sun (sunflower), in addition
to collective work, like carpet weaving, tastefulness, in the limit of
ethnical likelihood, stimulates variety and evolution, encounter of
tastes, in addition to stimulation of creating and using new images
instead of old designs, appears some possibility for choosing,
consultation and collective creation.
It is a great
mistake at inspection of tribal art, to assume that a feature or image
is constantly in evolution. Tribal people scarcely step out of their
traditional principles and their imitation become un-matures. They
don’t have the power of great artists and are limited in creation to
the objects around themselves. If they make an imitation of urban
samples, as could be seen in Qashqai and Caucasian woven, it would be
revealed very soon.
A group of Turkmen
tribe names are called after flower names, such as “Salur flower”,
“Tekkeh flower”, etc. Those designs are the most prevalent designs
of Turkmen applied in their carpets, in fact these are a symbol or
sign of attachment of those carpets to a special clan.
consideration on those flowers discovers no tribal sign. Flowers are
mostly octahedrons, but sometimes a little different; in those
alternations process are added to the main mould with decorative
designs. The basic feature has usually two axes, continuing only on
the sides and to the end of perforations and consequently all of the
flower divided by two axes to four symmetric parts.
It is possible that
inside the octahedron another octahedron or one to three labyrinthine,
square or other feature with wavy ribs appear. Between those features,
some more ornaments such as flowers (clover, coriander, paisley),
birds, trump, … are woven and the collection of flower appears as a
complicated mysterious image. According to an opinion, those flowers
are repetitive trace of camel foot (geometrically). As, floral pattern
and curved lines belong to Arian, geometric pattern belongs to Turkmen