Carpet: Iran

Turkmen Rug
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Images
 
 

Turkmen carpet attracted regard of researchers at least since the last decades of 19th century. As long as the first collection of Turkmen carpets opened its way through western museums and private collections, merit of this carpet with its images, its basic images, its colors and special weaving of Turkmen was recognized. In Russia and later in USSR, in Europe and USA, writing about this carpet was started and still in prevalence.

Turkmen carpets, though following Iranian images, but have Turkmen specialty and specification. Turkmen are remained in a special place of the history of Iranian carpet weaving; only in the field of "color", they still work according to daily possibilities. In course of time alterations become increased, but whatever remains stable are basic image and Turkmen images, which have stayed on the level of pre-Safavid Iranian weaving.

The other point, probably effective in formation and mostly in historical trend and achieving the final feature of Turkmen images, was prevalence of geometric images in informal art of decoration of central Asia. These factors could not be effect less in formation of images belonging to Turkmen, Uzbeks and other nations of Central Asia.

Native art of Central Asia, civilization which had at least record of 6000 years precedence, is extremely rich in geometric image-leavens.

There is very fine consideration in this respect: These tribal people, owing to their culture and their way of life, may not have complicated and controlled basic images. In exceptional instances, this phenomena is a sign of taste and enthusiasm, rather than a controlled cultural result.

We could find the best examples amongst Qashqais, having hundreds of basic images And various designs which presents the richest form of tribal aptitude.

Their images mainly consists of flowers, plants, animals and other images seen around their own tribal living and their talent and taste turn around the same subjects, drawing three-four legged bird, goat or deer with three or five legs, combination of flower and sun (sunflower), in addition to collective work, like carpet weaving, tastefulness, in the limit of ethnical likelihood, stimulates variety and evolution, encounter of tastes, in addition to stimulation of creating and using new images instead of old designs, appears some possibility for choosing, consultation and collective creation.

It is a great mistake at inspection of tribal art, to assume that a feature or image is constantly in evolution. Tribal people scarcely step out of their traditional principles and their imitation become un-matures. They don’t have the power of great artists and are limited in creation to the objects around themselves. If they make an imitation of urban samples, as could be seen in Qashqai and Caucasian woven, it would be revealed very soon.

A group of Turkmen tribe names are called after flower names, such as “Salur flower”, “Tekkeh flower”, etc. Those designs are the most prevalent designs of Turkmen applied in their carpets, in fact these are a symbol or sign of attachment of those carpets to a special clan.

Accurate consideration on those flowers discovers no tribal sign. Flowers are mostly octahedrons, but sometimes a little different; in those alternations process are added to the main mould with decorative designs. The basic feature has usually two axes, continuing only on the sides and to the end of perforations and consequently all of the flower divided by two axes to four symmetric parts.

It is possible that inside the octahedron another octahedron or one to three labyrinthine, square or other feature with wavy ribs appear. Between those features, some more ornaments such as flowers (clover, coriander, paisley), birds, trump, … are woven and the collection of flower appears as a complicated mysterious image. According to an opinion, those flowers are repetitive trace of camel foot (geometrically). As, floral pattern and curved lines belong to Arian, geometric pattern belongs to Turkmen tribes.
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Turkmen Rug
 
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