are used in two methods:
along with mordant
In this method, necessary water, herbal dyes and mordant
are poured in cauldron, till it is boiling; then skein
piles are brought to cauldron. After an hour and a half,
when all contents of cauldron are boiling, it is blown out
and piles are kept in bath, until the next day.
This method is done in two processes.
first, mordant and auxiliary substances are dissolved in a
small amount of water and poured in cauldron; then
necessary water is added to it, until it boils.
second process, needed herbal substances are added to the
contents of cauldron. 1/3 of cauldron is water and
completely mixed. After boiling for about one hour, when
sap is coming completely, water is added to cauldron and
temperature is reached to 40 or 50 degree C, till it is
boiling for an hour and a half. Then fire is blown out and
contents remain in cauldron for 24 hours.