of limited field of science in past, a scientist, mostly, knew with
many sciences. "Hakim", who throughout history of Iran, was
the central, principal figure in the dissemination of science, usually
also was a physician. So close was relationship between Hakim and
Doctor, that the latter, just like philosopher, was similarly called
"Hakim". Thus many of the most famous philosophers and
scientists, such as Avicenna (Ebne Sina) and Averroes (Ebne Roshd),
were also physicians, earning their living by way of medical practice.
of theorical and applied Islamic era Medicine in Iran began with
Muslims' conquest of Jondishapour and Alexandria, then prominent
centers in both regards.
the early days of Islamic era, medical school and hospital of
Jondishapour formed a local point of science, particularly medicine,
housing Iranian, Indian, Roman and Greek physicians active in
theorical and clinical aspects of this science. In Alexandria, Greek
and Egyptian medicine, backed with the wealth of ancient traditions of
their own, were quite prosperous/
these two cities, Muslims became acquainted with Greek, Iranian,
Indian and Egyptian medicine, as well as with such masters as
Hippocrates, Galleons, Dioscorides, ...
8th century A.D., thanks to the peace and unity, that appeared in
Iran, medicine and practitioners of this science acquired a lofty
status and Jondishapour resumed its activity as the large center of
Iranian Medicine, dynasties as Bakhtishu and Massuyeh laying its
from Bakhtishu dynasty and a physician in Jondishapour, achieved fame
as the first doctor. Massuyeh, also a physician in Jondishapour,
during 8th century A.D., became the personal physician of
the late of 8th century A.D., the first medical book, entitled
"Delfolein", was written by Massuyeh's son, Yuhanna, followed
by "Ali ebne Raban Tabari" (Razi's teacher), who compiled
his important book "Ferdowsolhekmat" in 850 A.D.
9th century A.D., a colossal movement of translation and compilation
of medical, medicinal, pharmacological, botanical and zoological books
began, which resulted in the translation of numerous volumes from
Greek, Syrian, Pahlavi and Indian into Arabic, the formal language..
9th century A.D., "Honain ebne Eshaq" became famous at the
most prolific translator, having translated 99 medical treatises into
Arabic. Among those who dioscorides' important De Materi Medica, which
he translated from Syrian. A treasury of pharmacological, botanical
and zoological knowledge, this translation, "Ketabolhashaesh Fi
Hayouloteb", soon became a major reference work for
pharmacologists and chemists.
ebne Qara" (835-900 A.D.) was also famous as a prominent
physician and great translator. He has translated numerous works from
Greek to Arabic, as well as written several medical books and
10-11th centuries A.D., medicine achieved its utmost splendor with the
works of "Mohammad Zechariah Razi", "Ali ebne Abbas
Majusi" and "Ebne Sina" (Avicenna). Services rendered
by Razi and Avicenna to medical science, caused Iranian Medicine to
become known by their works and to have far-reaching effects upon this
science throughout the world.
was the student of "Ali ebne Raban Tabari". He was the
greatest clinical physician, who long directed hospitals of Rey and
Baqdad. In his book "Tebbe Mansouri" (Mansouri Medicine),
Anatomical knowledge could be assessed. In another book
"Havi", the greatest medical opus in Arabic language,
includes all that was needed to a physician; and in another
"Tebbe Rohani", discusses mental disorders, psychology and
Razi, "Ali ebne Abbas Majusi" (death: 995 A.D.) counts among
the prominent doctors of the world and his written works greatly
contributed to development of medical science. He was personal
physician of "Azedodoleh" in Shiraz. His venerable opus
"Kamelossanaeh" or "Tebbe Maleki", was the most
read medical book in of its time.
In 10th century A.D., the first medical book in
"Persian Text", entitled "Hedayatolmotoalemin", was
written by "Abubakr Rabi ebne Ahmad Bukhari Akhaveini".
century A.D. saw the advent of Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna: 980-1036), the
greatest Iranian physician, whose works embody the culmination of
medical science. His book "Qanoun" was the most effective,
most read medical book and it was reprinted numerous times in Europe
during Renaissance. His contemporary, physician "Abu Mansour
Movafaq ebne Ali Heravi", compiled "Alabnieh Anelhaqaeq
Aladvieh", dealing with pharmacology, herb logy and botany, in Persian
12th century A.D., medicine pursued its development with works of
"Ismail Jorjani" and "Fakhr Razi". Jorjani,
illustrious doctor, served as Court Physician of Kharazmshahi dynasty
and Seljuk Soltan Sanjar. In 1110 A.D., he compiled venerable "Zechariah
Kharazmshahi", which brings together Razi's Havi, Avicenna's
Qanoun and a treasury of pharmacological knowledge within 10 volumes
in Persian and Arabic texts. This, soon became one of the most read
Razi is another philosopher and physician from 13th century A.D.,
whose book "Sharhe Koliat Qanoun Ebne Sina", was
instrumental in development of this science.
13th century A.D. (1275), great scientist, "Zechariah
Qazvini" wrote his "Ajaebol Makhluqat", several
chapters of which deal with medical science, botany, zoology and
14th century A.D., Rashidedin Fazlolah", great minister of
Ilkhanid dynasty, was among the patrons of medical science. In
addition to compiling a medical encyclopedia, for researchers, he
instituted a prize soon contested by scholars and doctors from as far
as Andalusia, Tunisia and Tripoli.
15th century, interest in anatomy developed and the first illustrated
book, entitled "Tashrihol Abdan" or Kefayat Mansouri",
was prepared by "Mansour ebne Mohammad ebne Ahmad Elias
Shirazi" in 1395. In this book, Greek and Indian embryological
conceptions are discussed alongside anatomical illustrations.
16th and 18th century A.D., during which Safavid dynasty ruled over
Iran, works of Mohammad Hosseini Nourbakhshi, Hakim Momen and Mozafar
Shafai further magnified medicine.
was the first to identify "hay fever" and "whooping
cough" and his book "Kholasatot Tajrobeh" was well
Momen Tohfeh, which includes pre-Safavid medical knowledge and
experiences of the author and his contemporary masters, was still
consulted in Iran.
Safavid era could be considered the golden age of Iranian
pharmacology. Mozafar Shafai, son of Mohammad Hosseini Isfahani
Kashani, lived under Shah Abbas 1 and was a great physician of that
epoch. In addition to several other books, he wrote his famous book
"Qarabadin Shafai" in 1555 A.D., an invaluable source of
pharmacological knowledge currently consulted in Iran and India.
the course of 19th century, with gradual introduction of European
medicine during Qajar period, Iranian medical community bade the
ancient world farewell and with inauguration of "Darol Fonoun Polytechnic"
(1850), western medicine acquired official status in Iran.
the founders of modern medicine in Iran, one may cite Austrian Dr.
Polack, Dutch Dr. Schlimmer and Dr. Albaux, who were instructors in
1855, Dr. Albaux's surgery book and Dr. Polack's book "Vazidatol
Hekmat" were published. In 1862, Schlimmer books
"Shafaieh" and "Serolhekmat" were lithographed
with Persian titles.
on Small-Pox Vaccination" seems to have been one of the first
books printed in 1923 in Tabriz.