Kilim of Kurd
Bio-data of this clan is very old and ancient. Kurd title was given at
first to the local tribes and unions of Western Iran around (640 B.C.). It was a vast land
consisting Armenia to Zagros Mountains, and from Euphrat to Isfahan. The extra scattering
and the large area of region caused great differences in textures, colors, designs and
even weaving. One may refer to beautiful silk kilims of Senneh with highest
fame and near similarity to traditional carpets of Iran or woven curtains and wall-covers
Senneh is the origin of the most famous Kurdish Kilims in region of
Sanandaj and its environment. This city was the capital city of Kurdistan since Safavid
Kingdom and a center of carpet and kilim weaving. The influence of Safavid Kingdom, may
easily be seen in designs of kilims and carpets of Kurdistan.
Kilims of Senneh resembles the Mongolian carpets, but their designs are adopted from
Indian textile. Technically, kilims of this region is quite different than other kilims
woven by tent-dwellers and are divided into 3 categories in combination:
- Repeatedly flowered designs or one flower design suspended by a nail from loom
surrounded by a narrow margin or a group of margins.
- Flowers are finer and the separated medallions stand in center. This kilim is similar to
the knotted carpets called Barati.
- Prayer rugs having a bulbous shaped altar varies from prayer rugs of other countries.
Considering the fact that designs of other countries are used in these kilims, only the
artistic skill of the weavers remains as an outstanding point. General specifications of
Senneh kilims are :
Ground design: Endless repeating of floral design on the entire ground,
flowered design inside the middle medallion.
Margins: Numerous and floral.
Size and Feature: Normally small and
rectanguler, some big and round with
Materials: Yarn warps, fine woolen weft.
Texture: Extra fine
slit wearing, extra enclosed weft, curved wefts.
Fringes: Knotted networks, in groups
(One of the limited Iranian clans that weaves prayer rugs).
Bijar of Kurdistan
Weaving this kilim is appropriated to Bijar and its suburbs. Some of these kilims are
simple copies of Senneh with a coarse wool and dark colors. Some unique and outstanding
kilims of this kind have slit, woolen weaving and yarn warps. Kilims of this region
could not be easily distinguished from western kilims, such as Shahsevens; they have
mostly two margins: the outer margin shows a marvel-of-peru, at face. Other specifications
of these kilims are :
Ground Design: Geometrical medallion (relief) on a simple ground.
Size and feature: Long and narrow
Materials: Coarse wool, sometimes yarn warps
Colors: Various hard colors
Selvages: Uniform, parallel spiral
(Weaving human-animal images)
Bijar Kurdistan dyeing depends directly on the following factors:
1- Type and quality of warp and weft.
2- Modality of spinning.
3- Chosing color.
4- Modality of dyeing materials.
For dyeing, it was some materials in the past, such as Sumac root, madder, granatum, grape
leaf, onion cortex, turmeric, walnut leave and other natural materials for dyeing; at
present, having synthetics in the market, natural dyeing is forgotten and synthetics are
used for accelerate and facility of work; natural dyeing is scarcely applicable.
They can be divided in two clans:
1- A tribe from Elazig in Central Anatolia.
2- A tribe from Karabag.
Both have escaped into Iran. Some of them have stayed in the mountain slopes of
They are ancestors of Rashun Kurds. The other group have resided at margin of
Kavir plain and have called themselves as Chamis Ghazagh.
Khorasanian Kurds utilize very various designs, colors and techniques in
their weavings; meanwhile one could find some effects of their Anatolian-Caucasian
ancestors in their designs. This must not be ignored that their hand-made designs are
multi featured because other races are living in their side.
Kilims of Khorasanian Kurd somewhat resembles to the weaving, of
Ghaleh No in North-West Afghansitan. This region is famous for abundant
producing of bag-rug, Maffrash and Namakdan
(salt-container). Specifications of kilims woven by Khorasanian kurd are:
Wool wraps, soft wool wefts.
Ground Design: Miscellaneous designs, utilizing some motives of Caucase and neighboring
Size and Feature: Miscellaneous
Weaving: Weft faced patterning, spiral weaving.
Colors: Dark and plain, light brown, light orange
Uniform, parallel spiral
(Rug-bag, ornamental objects and table-cloth are also made).