Oceania: Australia

General Information

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Australia (2000)
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Geography
Australia placed in South Semicircle of Earth, an island between Pacific, India, and Atlantic, Oceans (between 110-145 degree East and 15-35 degree South).

Weather
Summer starts in December, Autumn in March, winter in June and spring in September. Seasonal Variations are not extreme and it's rare for temperatures to drop below zero on the mainland except in the mountains. In far North, monsoon belt, there are Just two seasons: hot and dry. Australia has a better weather in South and East. Southern states are popular during the summer months but the best time to visit is probably the shoulder Seasons of Spring or Autumn when the weather in the south is mild, Queens land is still warm, the humidity is not too draining in North . Spring in the outback can be spectacular if rains encourage wild flowers.

Background Information
Full country name:
Common Wealth of Australia
Area: 7,682,300 sq. km
Population:18,090,000
Capital City: Canberra (pop:311,000)
People: 94% European descent, 4% Asian, 1.5% Aboriginal.
Languages: English, Aboriginal languages (plus Italian, Greek and numerous other European and Asian languages).
Religion: 75% Christian, 1% Muslim, 1% Buddhist, 0.5% Jewish.
Government: Independent Member of British Common Wealth.

Economic profile
GDP: US $ 340 billion
GDP ranking in the world: 13th
GDP Per head: US $ 19,007
Annual growth: 3.3%
Inflation: 5.1%
Major Products/ Industries: Minerals, Oil, Coal, Gold, Wool and  Meat.

Travel Information
Visas: Every Nationality except New Zealanders need visas. Tourists visas are generally valid for six months. visas for less than three months are free.
How to get there: Virtually all visitors to Australia arrive by air. The main international airports are Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane, followed by Perth, Adelaide, Hobart, Darwin and Cairns.
Getting around: Because of the big vast, most people prefer to travel by airplane. Some prater to travel by bus or train; it is cheaper and comfortable and also could see all the country. But it takes a long time.

Transportation
Between cities: Airplane, ship, train, and bus.
In cities: Metro, bus and taxi.

Time Zone
There are three time zones:
Eastern standard time is UTC plus 10 hours;
Central time is UTC plus 9.5 hours;
Western time UTC plus 8 hours.

Money and Cost
Currency: Australian Dollar
Relative Costs:
Cheap meal: US $ 3
Restaurant meal: US $ 7
Hostel accommodation: US $ 8
Cheap room: US $ 20

Media: Publications, Radio and TV are all in English.

Communication: Telephone, Telegraph, Fax, Post, Email, Mobile and Internet.

Weights and Measures:
Metric System.

Electricity: 220- 240 V, 50 HZ

Business Hours
Government: 8.30-16.30
Shopping: 9-13.30 and 16-22
Weekend: Saturday and Sunday.

Art and Culture
Australia is a multicultural Society. Australians were Predominantly of British and Irish descent, but that has changed dramatically. Large immigrations from Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Turkey followed the war and have been supplemented by more recent in influxes of immigrants from Asia. There are also about 230,000 Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Australians has a rich artistic heritage and a rich artistic heritage and a vibrant contemporary art scene. Aboriginal rock carvings and paintings date back at least 3000 years. European settles began to produce distinctively Australian Art Forms towards the end of the 19th century. Australians mid-20th century artists were world figures ( Sidney Nolan, Patrick White) and its modern practitioners have excelled in painting (Fred Williams), Literature (Peter Carney) Opera ( Joan Soother Land), Film (Peter Weir) and Popular Music (Nick  Cave).

Embassies
All countries have embassy in Mel born and Canberra.

 

 

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