The history of Moscow and the Kremlin goes back to olden
times. The first written record of Moscow dates back to
1147, to the reign of Grand Prince of Kiev Yuri, Vladimir
Monomach’s son. He was nicknamed “Dolgoruky”
(Long-armed), i.e., one reaching out for other
principalities, for his unification policy. Yuri Dolgoruky
is considered to be the founder of Moscow and in
commemoration of this an equestrian statue by the sculptor
S.M. Orlov was erected in Tverskaya Street in 1954.
One of the most remarkable exhibits of the Kremlin museums
connected with the genealogy of Russian princes is the Cap
of Monomach, the Russian tsars’ inherited crown. It even
became proverbial. There is a saying: “How heavy you
are, the Cap of Monomach!” meaning the heavy burden of
Since time immemorial the Moscow
Kremlin has been the center of Russian statehood, the
residence of Russian tsars and hierarchs of the Russian
Under Dmitry Donskoy in 1367-1368 the white-stone walls and
towers of the Kremlin were erected and Moscow began to be
called “white-stone”. In 1485-1495 the Kremlin was
totally rebuilt. It was then the first brick buildings
appeared there and it largely acquired its present
appearance and dimensions.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Peter I
transferred the capital of Russia to St. Petersburg,
however, according to tradition, the Russian tsars were
coroneted in Moscow.
In 1917 the Soviet government transferred the Russian
capital back to Moscow. The Kremlin became the seat of the
highest state bodies, a sort of preserve, where only in
1955 that its unique museums have again become accessible
to all. Church services have recently been resumed in the
old cathedrals and the Kremlin bells, which have been
silent for over 70 years, have come to life.
The Kremlin has been the residence of the President of the
Russian Federation and his Administration since 1992.
Kremlin has been and remains a unique monument of Russian
culture and a symbol of Russian statehood.