In 1570 Ottoman troops attack Cyprus, capture Lefkosia,
slaughter 20000 of the population and lay siege to
Ammochostos for a year. After their defence by Venetian
commander Marc Antonio Bragadin, Ammochostos falls to
Ottoman commander “Lala Mustafa”, who at first allows
the besieged a peaceful exodus, but later orders the
flaying of Bragadin and puts all others to death. On
annexation to Ottoman Empire, the Latin leadership is
expelled or converted to Islam and Greek Orthodox Church
restored; in time, Archbishop, as leader of Greek
Orthodox, becomes the people's representative to Sultan.
When Greek War of Independence breaks out in 1821,
Archbishop of Cyprus, Kyprianos, three bishops and
prominent Cypriots are executed. Muslim minority during
Ottoman period eventually acquires a Cypriot identity.
Under 1878 Cyprus Convention, Britain assumes
administration of the island. It remains formally part of
Ottoman Empire until the latter enters First World War on
the side of Germany, and Britain in consequence annexes
Cyprus in 1914.
In 1923 under Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey relinquishes all
rights to Cyprus. In 1925 Cyprus is declared a Crown
colony. In 1940 Cypriot volunteers serve in British Armed
Forces throughout the Second World War.
Hopes for self-determination being granted to other
countries in the post-war period are shattered by the
British, who consider the island vitally strategic. After
all means of peaceful settling of the problem are
exhausted, a national liberation struggle is launched in
1955 against colonial rule and for union of Cyprus with
Greece, which lasts until 1959.