Asia, Middle East: Iran

Susa City (Shush)

Khuzistan Province

Susa (means "nice and pleasant"), Shoush or Shoushan is located in the West of the province, 110 km from Ahvaz. This ancient city was the capital of Elam and during Achaemenid monarch, it was one of the 4 capitals. In Sassanid and Partian periods, it was one of the important cities. Susa's ancient hills are located between karkhe and Dez rivers, Susa, from geographical point of view, is divided into four regions. The highest hill is called Apadana, the Eastern hills called Shahr Shahi (Kings City) and North called Shahr Pishevaran (tradesman city). Its historical sites and monuments are:

Apadana (The Palace of Darius)
Darius, the king of Achaemenian, ordered architects to build a splendor palace on the Elam hills. The palace consisted of different units such as terrace, women's apartment, guestroom, gate and three central courtyards. The most significant part of the palace was destroyed by fire in the Ardeshir I era (461 BC). The Palace was rebuilt again in Ardeshir II era (355 – 440 BC), and finally this palace and the other Achaemenian palaces were destroyed by Macedonian Alexander in 330 BC.

Acropole is a Greek word meaning the highest area of a city. The French archeologists built a great castle on the Acropole in 1897. The most important remnants discovered in Acropole are the statue of Napiraso Queen, Naramseen souvenir and the act of Hamurabi.

Shahr Pishevaran
This part of hills and historical lands are located in the East and north of Susa. Generally the remnants refer to the beginning of Islamic era. The remnants of a village and a mosque were discovered in this area.

Shahr Shahi (King’s City)
The Eastern hills of Susa is called king’s city. A lot of vestiges relating to Elam, Achaemenid , Arcacian and Sassanian eras are discovered in this region.

The Palace of Ardeshir II
The remnants of the palace is located in front of the mausoleum of Daniel. The pillars of the palace are made of stones and the walls of bricks. There are different kinds of paintings on the walls. The palace was built in the era of Ardeshir II. It was the seat of a government for a while.

Mausoleum of Daniel
The prophet Daniel is one of the great prophets of Jews tribes (700 BC). He immigrated to Iran, with some of the people of Jews tribe, and at last, he died in Susa. His magnificent mausoleum was built in 1899.

Choghazanbil Ziggurat
Choghazanbil is located in 45 km in southeast of Susa. It was built about 1300 BC. Chogazanbil temple belongs to the late Elam civilization and it has been been built by the king of that era in the center of Dourantash city in the past. The kings palaces and tombs are located between the first and the second fence. The water is located between the first and the second fence. The water of the refinery is provided from Karkheh river. The major temple is located in the center of third fence. The cuneiform bricks are seen on the walls of temple. Choghazanbil was destroyed in 640 BC.
Ruins of Elamite city, dates back to 13th century BC, have been found near the ziggurat. The city was destroyed by order of Ashur Banipal.

Susa Museum
There is a museum in Susa, in which historical objects, relics of ancient tombs and coffins, belong to different ages, are displayed.

Relics of ancient temples in Haft-Tappeh

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