Iran

Bam Citadel

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Kerman Province
 
 

Bam, a small town by the famous Silk Road, near Kerman, is connected to the coast of Persian Gulf. It was founded in Parthian period and flourished to be a thriving city in 10th century AD. Concerning economy and trade, Bam was of greater value and importance and most of the textiles and clothes produced here had universal fame.

Area of Bam Citadel is 180000 sq m enclosed with a fence of 6 to 7 m high and 1815 m length. There are two large towers, known as "Bidar-Bash" towers, built within interior fence, which involves the dais. The sum of towers in the whole ancient city, Bam, is 67 ones. 
Design and architecture of Bam Citadel is very clever and leading so that it shows that it has been built in a certain period to let the parts be complete and cover each other.

Bam Citadel is located at the center of the city, which is the highest point. The value and importance of it is to the extent that all the other remains and buildings around it are known as Bam Citadel. Architectural form of Bam in the past was in a way that it was divided into three parts. This division can be distinguished even now:
1) Small town enclosed with interior wall together with Citadel, Bazaar.
2) The fields of oasis's in which there were sporadic houses.

Fortifications of Bam is better than those of the most fortified cities. These fortifications include a very high place and now involve a high thick mud wall and a vast deep moats.
A steep road lead one to the entrance gate of Bam. This gate has an octagonal form and some rooms for the guards.

There is a view of old city from the top of the tower. Citadel is high above the entire city. The axis of the city, which is from North to South, lies between the gate and Citadel and involves the very bazaar of the city with long rows of shops at both sides.

There is also a large square opposite the gate of the Citadel. On the other side of square , there is a caravansary. "Zurkhaneh" (an ancient kind of gymnasium), which is the symbol of ancient Iranian sports was of great importance in this city, so that remains are still completely apparent.

Ceiling of the central part was covered with a dome. Wind blows through the building because it is open from four sides.

besides the main construction, there were some other buildings, which were rulers' residence. All these buildings were ornamented with beautiful stucco and lattice windows.

It is the second splendid construction in the world, made of sun-dried bricks and is registered by UNESCO as cultural remains.

 





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