Architecture: Yard

Comparison between yarded houses in Iran and other countries
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Research
 
 

Scope of expansion of houses with yard in East countries consists a long chain from Iran as far as North Africa and contains many countries like Iran, Iraq, Greece, Syria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In some of those countries, in addition to houses with yard, some yard less houses are also built.

In other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, widespread species of multistory houses without yard are built.

In every region, with regard to climate specifications and current architectural culture, houses with yard are formed. Notwithstanding those differences and various specifications, faith and belief of religious culture, result creation of a sanctuary for private life of residents. Then yard and organization of different spaces around yard, play an important role to achieve this aim.

Yard in those countries has an utmost similarity to yards of coastal cities of Iran in Persian Gulf, specially to Bushir and in some instances are alike fully closed yards of Central Iran.

In Yard less houses, in some cities of Saudi Arabia and Yemen, in addition to climatic and interior migration issues, sanctuary for private part of house is also kept in mind.

In vicinity of Iran and some cities of Iraq, special kind of houses with yard are built, in which various spaces of house are around yard.

Considering hot summer of region, interior migration is made inside the house, while grotto is a fine cool place for afternoon rest and roof for nightly sleep.

Old texture houses of Damascus are built with central yard.

Application of some annex, like veranda, has similarity with other regions like Egypt and Bushir (Iranian Southern City).

Various parts of house are built around yard. In Northern and Southern fronts, summer and winter spaces are built. Although those houses have central yard, but their entrance door is not built in a way to prevent looking inside the house and may enter through direct path from entrance into the yard.

One of the particularities of yarded houses of Damascus is having a space called Veranda (Eyvan). This word "Eyvan", which is originally a Persian word, still is in use. Eyvan in Damascus houses is rather similar to halls of Yazd houses; perhaps, the main difference is the little diversity of surface with yard. There are summer residing rooms beside to Eyvan and their entrance way passes through Eyvan.

Because of smallness of yards of current houses and their being multistoried to benefit sunshine in winter time, winter residing rooms stand on the first floor of Northern front.

In Egypt (and in Cairo), houses are yarded and various spaces are around the yard in several stories. Entering into house usually takes place indirectly. On ground floor spaces are mostly appropriated to storage and in some instances, a few rooms are appropriated as guest room.

Yard in Egyptian houses, contrary to houses in West, have small pools and beautiful fountains. There are small gardens on beside, to cool off hot spaces in summer. In neighboring country of Libya, only little trace is remained fro old houses. Though this country has not the reach culture of Egypt and Syria, but under influence of adjacent countries and Ottoman culture has created an interesting architecture, specially in native architecture. In ground floor, an indirect entrance and yard with its environ spaces are built around it. The interesting point is building a porch in one or several stories on the first and ground floor.

Yard in countries like Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco has been a space to pass air current to various parts of the house, in addition to organizing spaces almost like Bushir, so that those yards were called as :tight wells".

In organizing house space in Maqreb, Algeria and Tunisia, there seem a clear monotony; specially, the role of hall as an important social factor, is extremely considered, because host could accept and entertain guests without their entering in the house.

Central part of house consists a yard, which in Tunisia is usually rectangular. Two fronts of yard have no room and small fronts are covered by veranda (Eyvan). The main room, contrary to entrance room, leads to dormitory, which resembles the main ceremonial guest room. The upper story covers only a part of roof of the ground floor.

Yard in Algerian houses are rectangular and several rooms are built around it. In second and third floors, there are rooms with corridors on their foreside, looking toward the yard and a corridor-shaped Eyvan. The fact that Algerian houses are built in altitude (vertical), may be because the rareness of land and unevenness of the ground, while horizontal expansion of houses is almost impossible.

Houses in Robat (Morocco) also have central yard, usually one single yard, but in multi-yarded houses, various spaces like exterior compound, private garden (some kind of Orangery), bathroom and yarn are built. Pavement and footing in these yards are very charming.
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