expansion of houses with yard in East countries consists a long chain
from Iran as far as North Africa and contains many countries like
Iran, Iraq, Greece, Syria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. In some
of those countries, in addition to houses with yard, some yard less
houses are also built.
countries, such as Saudi Arabia, widespread species of multistory
houses without yard are built.
region, with regard to climate specifications and current
architectural culture, houses with yard are formed. Notwithstanding
those differences and various specifications, faith and belief of
religious culture, result creation of a sanctuary for private life of
residents. Then yard and organization of different spaces around yard,
play an important role to achieve this aim.
Yard in those
countries has an utmost similarity to yards of coastal cities of Iran
in Persian Gulf, specially to Bushir and in some instances are alike
fully closed yards of Central Iran.
In Yard less
houses, in some cities of Saudi Arabia and Yemen, in addition to
climatic and interior migration issues, sanctuary for private part of
house is also kept in mind.
In vicinity of
Iran and some cities of Iraq, special kind of houses with yard are
built, in which various spaces of house are around yard.
summer of region, interior migration is made inside the house, while
grotto is a fine cool place for afternoon rest and roof for nightly
houses of Damascus are built with central yard.
some annex, like veranda, has similarity with other regions like Egypt
and Bushir (Iranian Southern City).
of house are built around yard. In Northern and Southern fronts,
summer and winter spaces are built. Although those houses have central
yard, but their entrance door is not built in a way to prevent looking
inside the house and may enter through direct path from entrance into
One of the
particularities of yarded houses of Damascus is having a space called
Veranda (Eyvan). This word "Eyvan", which is originally a
Persian word, still is in use. Eyvan in Damascus houses is rather
similar to halls of Yazd houses; perhaps, the main difference is the
little diversity of surface with yard. There are summer residing rooms
beside to Eyvan and their entrance way passes through Eyvan.
smallness of yards of current houses and their being multistoried to
benefit sunshine in winter time, winter residing rooms stand on the
first floor of Northern front.
In Egypt (and
in Cairo), houses are yarded and various spaces are around the yard in
several stories. Entering into house usually takes place indirectly.
On ground floor spaces are mostly appropriated to storage and in some
instances, a few rooms are appropriated as guest room.
Egyptian houses, contrary to houses in West, have small pools and
beautiful fountains. There are small gardens on beside, to cool off
hot spaces in summer. In neighboring country of Libya, only little
trace is remained fro old houses. Though this country has not the
reach culture of Egypt and Syria, but under influence of adjacent
countries and Ottoman culture has created an interesting architecture,
specially in native architecture. In ground floor, an indirect
entrance and yard with its environ spaces are built around it. The
interesting point is building a porch in one or several stories on the
first and ground floor.
countries like Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco has been a space to pass
air current to various parts of the house, in addition to organizing
spaces almost like Bushir, so that those yards were called as :tight
house space in Maqreb, Algeria and Tunisia, there seem a clear
monotony; specially, the role of hall as an important social factor,
is extremely considered, because host could accept and entertain
guests without their entering in the house.
Central part of
house consists a yard, which in Tunisia is usually rectangular. Two
fronts of yard have no room and small fronts are covered by veranda (Eyvan). The main room, contrary to entrance room, leads to dormitory,
which resembles the main ceremonial guest room. The upper story covers
only a part of roof of the ground floor.
Algerian houses are rectangular and several rooms are built around it.
In second and third floors, there are rooms with corridors on their
foreside, looking toward the yard and a corridor-shaped Eyvan. The
fact that Algerian houses are built in altitude (vertical), may be
because the rareness of land and unevenness of the ground, while
horizontal expansion of houses is almost impossible.
in Robat (Morocco) also have central yard, usually one single yard,
but in multi-yarded houses, various spaces like exterior compound,
private garden (some kind of Orangery), bathroom and yarn are built.
Pavement and footing in these yards are very charming.